73 Will Fly From Harlingen To New Homes in Paraguay
By BERNARD MURPHY
Post Staff Correspondent
HARLINGEN – For 73 men, women and children camped in a former restaurant and building project near here, Sunday marked the beginning of a great new adventure.
A chartered airliner was to arrive in the United States from Paraguay to take them on the first stage of a journey of thousand[s] of miles to the jungle area of Puerto Olympian of the Paraguay River close to the southern border of Brazil.
The airplane with its human cargo of emigrants was scheduled to take off from here for Paraguay early Tuesday.
THERE, ON A 249,000-acre tract which can only be reached by river or air because there are no roads, they plan to build a settlement and mission.
Most of the pioneers – 24 of them are Houstonians – have been waiting in camp here since mid-May to start the journey they first decided last December to make.
Trim Mrs. Wyvonne Wood, wife of Jack Wood, a Houston missionary, spoke of the coming departure excitedly.
“It’s a wonderful relief to know that at last we are on our way, “ she said. “It’s been a long wait. Since our furniture and household goods went by sea from Houston a few weeks ago we having been living rough, even our beds have gone and it’s been a strain living perpetually as though you were moving house at a time.
“WE HAVE JUST heard that the Paraguay river has dropped to only four feet in depth due to lack of rain and it will probably be late January before our goods arrive at our jungle home – so we’ll have to rough it some more, but no one is downhearted.”
Brother James A. Saint John, leader of the expedition said four more persons have joined the group since the Houston Post first reported the plan to build a jungle mission settlement.
“We’ve had our letters from all over Texas, from California, Missouri and Ohio from people wanting to join us,” he said.
“But they had different reasons for going. Most of them wanted to go because they were discontented with life here. But we are going because we believe that in building a self-supporting mission, we are fulfilling God’s will.”
A COWBOY FROM Woodsboro – Gail Borden – who shares our views has joined us with his wife, Mosollo, and his daughters, Gaylean 8, and Cheryl, 7 – so now we are 73 instead of 69. And while we’ve been waiting for transport, there have been additions to the dog population. In addition to the five ranch dogs, we will take five new leopard puppies with us in the plane,” Saint John said.
Saint John, a preacher and rancher from Bloomington, near Victoria, was formerly a preacher in Houston. He said that the plane taking the party to Paraguay was to have arrived Saturday.
“JIM EOBERTS, a New Orleans rancher now with the Pan-Western Development Co. of Paraguay, who is making the land available to us, has arranged for a Constellation airliner to pick us up, but it will not arrive until Sunday,” Saint John said. “There will be room for everyone, including the dogs.
“We are also planning to fly in other planes from Asuncion (capital of Paraguay) to our camp instead of making the 425 mile journey by river boat.”
Borden said that he read about the group in the Post. “I’ve been a cowboy and I’ve worked in the oil fields,” he said, “but I felt that I was called to do something else. I’d known Brother Saint John before, so when I read about the trip I decided to go with them.”
THERE ARE NOW 32 adults, 30 children ages two to 12, and 11 babies in the party.
Each member of the group has a different skill, and Saint John said they hope to establish an entirely self-sufficient community in the jungle.
During their wait in Texas, the travelers have been living a communal life, eating in the communal dining hall and joining together for daily prayers.
December 29, 1963
Pilgrims in Paraguay
Temperamental Plane Takes 76 to Life in Lonely Land
By Bernard Murphy
I have just flown 14,000 miles to bring back the story of one of the strangest pilgrimages of modern times.
It is the story of 76 Americans, most Texans and 24 of them from Houston, who have begun, a back-to-nature life in the lonely region of Northern Paraguay called the Chaco. During the Gran Chaco wars of the 1930s it was called “The Green Hell.”
Here the pilgrims, members of a religious group known as Camp Beulah, Inc. plan to build a church and a mission school and their own self-sufficient community.
Until they can become self-sufficient, they are living on a 249,000-acre ranch owned by an American company, Pan Western Enterprises, Inc. The men are working as ranchers and farmers.
They are housed in crude huts made of palm trees and mud by native labor.
Their encampment is 420 miles north of Asuncion, capital of Paraguay. There are no roads in the Chaco and the only way to reach Estancia Del Sol, the pilgrims’ settlement at Puerto Milhanovich is by river or by small plane.
UNDER THE blazing sun of what is now high summer in Paraguay, the group from Texas is leading a life similar in many respects to that of the Swiss Family Robinson.
The women who [*Unknown word*] washing machines, refrigerators and air conditioning, now wash their clothes in the wide River Paraguay.
Their water, about 70 degrees if drunk immediately, and 85 to 90 degrees if allowed to stand, also comes from the river.
They cook their simple meals on a wood-burning stove.
THEIR HOUSES have windows devoid of glass and floors which are the earth of the Chaco itself.
There are no bathrooms, electric lights, modern sanitation or means of communication with the rest of the world. Transport in the settlement is by oxen cart.
Their neighbors are the Guarani Indians and the picturesque gauchos of this rich cattle country.
Masses of wildlife live in the Chaco around them, including jaguars and pumas and snakes. The river is filled with crocodiles, water [*gs] and other beasts.
James A. St. John, a 3[*] year-old former Baptist minister and rancher, a native of Bloomington, near Victoria, is the leader of the group.
I FLEW TO Paraguay with the pilgrims and lived with them for almost a week in the heat of the Chaco.
In keeping with the strangeness of life of these modern-day pioneers was the flight from Texas to Paraguay in an ancient chartered airliner.
The plane was constantly beset by mechanical troubles. It took us six days and six nights to reach Asuncion. Our flight included an emergency landing at a big U.S. Air Force Base in the Panama Canal Zone and a crossing of the towering Andes Mountains with failing fuel pumps and a radio that went dead. Financial crisis followed crisis during the trip.
In 25 years of flying, I don’t think I have ever met a more reluctant airplane than old ZP.CAS
THIS WAS THE ancient Constellation in which the pilgrims, large dogs and seven puppies flew from Brownsville to far-off Paraguay.
When the plane took off, after nearly a month of delays, most of the pilgrims had been waiting for almost exactly a year to reach Paraguay.
They came together at a missionary training school and boys camp owned by St. John at Coalmont, near Tracy City, Tenn.
Here in December, 1962, says St. John, “God spoke to us and gave us a message to go to Paraguay and do missionary work.”
ST. JOHN SOLD his ranch on which the school, known as Camp Beulah, was situated to buy equipment to take to Paraguay.
He contacted the Paraguayan consulate in New Orleans and eventually got into touch with James J. McRoberts.
McRoberts, an oilman and qualified engineer, is president of Pan-Western Enterprises, Inc., a company with offices in New Orleans and Asuncion, which has extensive land holdings in Paraguay.
At first McRoberts refused to have the Camp Beulah settlers on his lands. But he was impressed with the successful development of agriculture in Paraguay by the Mennonite religious colony at Campo Esperanza. So finally he agreed to provide a camp and to employ the skilled men of Cap Beulah, Inc.
THE WOULD-BE missionaries and their families moved from Tennessee to Harlingen. By May most of them were moved into a former restaurant and tourist camp.
The group grew, as friends said they would like to take the trip.
St. John contacted Hugo Zanelli, a Houston freight forwarder and asked him to arrange for the group’s farm equipment to be shipped to Paraguay.
By the end of October, Zanelli had shipped about 400 tons of equipment for St. John from the Port of Houston.
IT INCLUDED six tractors, three electric power plants, four bulldozers, a sawmill, two boats, food, clothing, refrigerators and three printing presses. With the presses the group plans to print schoolbooks and religious materials.
At the beginning of November, 69 men, women and children were waiting at Harlingen for a plane to take them to Paraguay.
Nov. 7 was planned as the day for take-off. But a suitable plane at the right price could not be found.
Meanwhile, as the group waited patiently at Harlingen, the ranks of the pilgrims grew. Seven new puppies arrived, Gail M. Borden, a 33-year-old Woodsboro cowboy, his wife Mozelle, and two children, Gaylean, 8, and Cheryl, 7, decided to go along. A giant Otoe Indian, Lawrence Pierce Murray of Ponca City, Okla., his daughter, Jacqueline, 4, and son, Franklin, 3, were the last to join.
FINALLY LAPSA, a Paraguayan airline company, agreed to fly the settlers out to Asuncion in a Constellation, which it was leasing at Miami.
For nearly a month the plane was expected almost daily to arrive at Brownsville, Time after time the settlers packed their bags, said goodbye to their relatives and prepared to leave. But no plane came.
St. John became so desperate that he explored the possibility of getting a plane elsewhere. But no other line would fly the group for less than twice the sum quoted by the Paraguayan firm.
WHAT THE settlers didn’t know was that the Constellation stood in a hangar for two years without taking to the air.
It was being overhauled and tested and the mechanics were desperately trying to coax it into the air.
They were encouraged constantly by Lorenzo J. C. Joy, a young Paraguayan travel agent, who had flown to Miami to supervise the trip.
For Joy the next few weeks were joyless. All he had was headaches. But a splendid enforced vacation at Miami was enjoyed by two diminutive and charming Paraguayan air hostesses, Miriam Centurion, 18, and Lidia Gimienez, 22, who had flown out from Asuncion to look after the pilgrims.
McROBERTS wasted about a week of his time trying to get the pilgrims airborne. He flew from Asuncion to Harlingen. After repeated telephone calls to Miami, McRoberts flew down to Florida to see what was happening.
“God is sure handling our journey: Hell send the plane when the time is right,” said the patient, prayerful Harlingen campers.
Capt. Fred Sharrer, a veteran ferry pilot of Miami, took command and at least the unbelievable happened – the plane arrived at Brownsville. The excited pilgrims loaded their baggage, their guns, and dogs onto trucks and drove to the airport.
THEY FOUND Capt. Scharrer and his crew of three, including Frank Crosson, of Miami, the flight engineer, Frank Cardus, a pilot from Paraguay, and another American pilot, resting in a nearby motel.
Sharrer explained that fuel pump trouble developed on the flight from Miami. There would be a delay while another pump was flown out and fitted to the plane.
Praising the Lord for having uncovered this defect in time, the pilgrims returned to their camp to wait still further.
THEY HAD ONLY the clothes in which they stood. Since all kitchen utensils had been packed, they ate only sandwiches.
But at long last, at 6:30 AM on Dec. 5 – a month late – the plane was ready. I joined McRoberts and the 76 pilgrims at the airport in Brownsville.
The plane’s load was so heavy that nearly a dozen duffle bags filled with the pioneers’ clothing, and two German Shepherd dogs, had to be left behind.
THEN THE motors came to life. The passengers prayed and sag, “Launch Out Into the Deep.” The old plane shook as the motors were revved up. For most of the passengers this was the first time in an airplane.
“Sister Long’s eyes,” noted Houston preacher Jack Wood, “are as big as a dollar.”
After seven more hours the plane landed in Tocumen International Airport in Panama. Here there was a three-hour delay while further adjustments were made to the fuel pumps.
At 7 PM a tired band of men, women and children departed again on the next leg of the trip, 1,300 miles to Lima, Peru.
TWO HOURS later, with the fuel pumps giving trouble again, the plane turned back towards U. S. Air Force Base in the Canal Zone.
The travelers stayed overnight at the base while a civilian engineer worked on the fuel pumps.
The next day, with the plane still not ready, the pilgrims obtained special permission to entire the Republic of Panama.
They stopped briefly at the luxurious Panama-Hilton on their way to a Tocumen airport where the plane was to pick them up.
BUT AT THE airfield they learned the fuel pumps still were not working.
So there was nothing to do but to put the whole flock up at one of the finest hotels in Panama, the La Siesta, and pay the bill.
Joy wanted to fly down through Brazil, where LAPSA had bases and credit. Capt. Sharrer had little faith in the state of the plane and thought it
safer to fly down the coast of Peru and Chile, where a sea ditching would be less dangerous than a forced landing in the jungles of Brazil.
MEANWHILE hotel bills, repair costs, and landing fees, and the plane’s huge appetite for gasoline had to be paid in cash.
Joy, McRoberts and Capt. Sharrer pooled their available money to pay the engineer who repaired the plane and to buy gas. St. John went into town and bought 100 oranges at one penny each and as many bananas to feed the group on the flight.
Throughout the day the women of Camp Beulah, Inc., in their old-fashioned long dresses, walked around the hotel’s swimming pool while the less inhibited hostesses splashed in the water and played ping pong in brief swimsuits.
THE PATIENCE of the women and children amazed Joy. “Thank God I didn’t have a load of ordinary passengers,” he said. “I’d have shot myself by now, if I had.”
At each delay the tired travelers contented themselves that this was the will of the Lord.
At 11:05 AM on Saturday, Dec. 7, the plane was again ready for flight and we flew on for another seven or eight hours to Lima Peru
At Lima I made the biggest purchase of gasoline of my life.
We needed 3,000 gallons of fuel to fly on to Santiago Chili and McRoberts borrowed %500 from me to pay for it. This brought us to Santiago, a lovely city surrounded by snow-capped mountains, and a [sic] further forced delay because of fuel pump troubles.
At 8 AM on Tuesday – six days after leaving Brownsville – the Constellation was ready to take off from Santiago on the final 800-mile leg of the flight to Asuncion, capital of Paraguay.
Even Capt. Sharrer, our pilot, isn’t quite sure how the old plane made this last climb over the Andes.
THE FUEL pumps gave trouble again. One went out of action altogether. The radio went dead. But somehow Sharrer got that old plane with its great load over the towering mountains. The plane was not pressurized and therefore we had to fly over the lowest part of the mountains, known as “The Saddle,” where the tops of the hills are only 15,000 feet high.
The weather was rough and the old plane bucked like a bronco but at noon we were there and the nose went down for a safe landing in Asuncion.
[“Aircraft was dismantled at Viracopos (near Sao Paulo) in 1964 after suffering an engine failure and of other problems on a ferry flight as ZP-CAS for Lloyd Aereo Paraguayo on 27 January 1964. http://www.zoggavia.com/c_n_1964.html ]
Dr. Angel De Aldecoa, a French-speaking Paraguayan who is vice president of Pan Western Enterprises, Inc., greeted us. Pan Western had prepared a free luncheon for the pioneers. They ate it after offering prayers for their safe arrival and singing hymns.
Passengers, luggage and the pen-weary dogs and puppies were transferred to two C-47 aircraft and a couple hours later we came down on the rough-and-ready landing strip of Estancia Del Sol, the palm, mesquite, and cactus wilderness which was to be a new homeland for the 76 settlers from Texas.
Two Camp Beulah Families Complaining about Prophet
A Texas cowboy and his family who went to Paraguay with the Camp Beulah Pilgrims in December to establish a mission and begin a new life are back home, disillusioned and broke.
Gail M. Borden, 33, of Woodsboro said he quit the camp because he couldn’t go along with the ideas of James A. St. John, leader of the Pilgrims and a self-styled prophet.
“St John thinks he’s a prophet,” Banks told Valley Freedom Newspapers over the phone, “but I don’t know how he gots that way. When he wants something done he says God told him to do this and God told him to do that.”
Two Families Return
Borden, his wife Mozelle and their two small daughters returned to Texas last month and are living on the Reach Ranch near Woodsboro.
Lawrence Murray, an Oklahoma Indian, also has left the missionary group. He and his two children are back home in Norman.
The Pilgrims assembled in Harlingen for the trip to Paraguay and lived for several months in the old Stuart Place Clubhouse on W. Hwy. 83.
Borden described St. John as a strict disciplinarian and said he kept his followers subservient by withholding their salary. He said dissatisfaction among members of the camp was evident before he left and predicted the colony would disband within six months.
“The camp wasn’t at all what I thought it would be,” Borden said. “I’ve known St. John for 15 years and he used to be a pretty good boy, but he is trying to set up a colony of his own down there. We went down to establish a mission but that’s not what they’re doing.”
Borden said St. John told the Pilgrims they were in Paraguay to raise one generation, “just exactly like the Bible said to raise them. “ “If a child doesn’t do what he is told to do, St. John believes he should be punished,” Borden went on.
A former Baptist preacher from Bloomington, Tex., St. John’s word is law around camp, Borden said.
He said the Lord told him he was the most righteous man in the group and that he had more practical knowledge than anyone there,” Borden continued.
Borden said St. John is not teaching Christianity “the way I see it.” He said there are 14 families in the camp and that the St. John family is the only one that has an ice box and a stove, both of which operate off butane.
The Pilgrims’ main diet consists of rice, noodles and hard-tack (a hard roll) and a few caned goods, Borden said.
Borden said the trip cost him everything he had accumulated over the last 10 years. “But I can’t complain,“ he said. “I’ve learned a lot and besides you can’t always measure an experience like this in dollars and cents.”
He said he was supposed to get $200 a month but all he ever got from St. John was $12.
“One day St. John said he got some money and told us we could have what we needed as long as it wasn’t too much.” Borden went on, “I got $12, the most money I saw down there.” He said he had to borrow $1,100 to bring his family back to Texas.
Borden said one day two men wanted to go talk with personnel at the U.S. Embassy in Asunción capitol of Paraguay but St. John told them they couldn’t go. “These people don’t want to see you.” Borden said St. John told the men “They think we’re here to evade taxes in the states.”
However, Borden said after he left the camp he stopped by the American Embassy in Asunción and was treated exceptionally courteously. “They told me they were there to help us and would be glad to see us at any time,” Borden said.
76 in Original Party
A total of 76 Pilgrims left Harlingen for Paraguay, among them St. John’s wife and two children. Before leaving, he said:
“We are going into what is virtually a jungle to build our own self-supporting mission community. We will retain our U.S. citizenship but we have permanent Paraguayan visas and we intend to stay.”
But Borden thinks the whole thing is about to fall apart. He said he had heard two other families have had about all they can stand of the camp and will be coming home soon.
“I believe others will follow them and it won’t be long before it’s all over,” he added.
* * END * *
I recall having a fridge, or ice box, and a stove with an oven when we lived in Asuncion. One evening, I was cleaning up the kitchen and at the age of four, didn’t know what to do with the salt and pepper. I decided that pepper is hot, thus it should go in the oven and the salt isn’t hot, so it belongs in the fridge. My mother had quite the laugh when she heard my explanation. I do not know the Borden family but the man supposedly knew James St. John for ten years prior to our traveling to South America. James St. John was as bull-headed as my father. I cannot see a situation where any man would tell my father what to do and actually expect him to follow orders. Dad’s “noncompliant” character would have stood on equal footing with any other man.
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